Central serous chorioretinopathy, commonly referred to as CSC, is a condition in which fluid accumulates under the retina, causing changes in the perception of shapes and colors.
Central serous most often occurs in young and middle-aged adults. Vision loss can resolve on its own, but sometimes can recur or linger.
Retained Lens Fragments
As people age, the lens in the eye becomes opacified or cloudy, which produces a cataract. Cataract surgery aims to replace the cloudy lens to reverse vision loss caused by this process. Cataracts can also occur as a result of trauma and medical conditions, such as diabetes.
In most cases, cataract surgery is an uneventful procedure, leading to no complications. However, some individuals, sometimes due to an underlying propensity for a complication (i.e., previous trauma, advanced cataract), the cataract cannot be removed in its entirety, and fragments remain in the eye. Sometimes these fragments travel to the back of the eye, in the vitreous cavity, where they cannot be removed using routine cataract surgery instrumentation.
Diabetic retinopathy is a common condition that develops in patients with hyperglycemia for prolonged periods, as occurs in diabetes mellitus, either type I or type II. While a wide range of effects on the retina exists, frequent screening exams are necessary to identify people at risk of significant visual impairment if left untreated.
What is diabetic retinopathy?
Elevated blood sugar leads to modification of proteins and other components inside of blood vessels. These modifications can be damaging to the eye’s circulation. When these tiny vessels are bathed in elevated blood sugar levels for many years, they become brittle, close off (capillary drop-out) or break (causing small hemorrhages). The leakage of blood, fluid and cholesterol from these fragile vessels can lead to blurry vision. When leakage occurs in the macula, this is called diabetic macular edema. When new blood vessels grow, this is called retinal neovascularization. Neovascularization can lead to bleeding in the vitreous cavity, which is called vitreous hemorrhage, and also lead to fibrotic tissue that contracts and detaches the retina (traction retinal detachment).